This day in #History
October 8th

314 – Battle at Cibalae : emperor Constantine beats emperor Licinius

451 – Council of Chalcedon (4 th ecumenical council ) opens

876 – Battle at Andernach : Louis the Young beats Charles the Bare

1075 – Dmitar Zvonimir is crowned king of Croatia .

1085 – San Marcos minstery in Venice initiated

1480 – Great standing on the Ugra river, a standoff between the forces of Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Great Horde , and the Grand Duke Ivan III of Russia, which resulted in the retreat of the Tataro – Mongols and eventual disintegration of the Horde .

1492 – Columbus’ fleet about 400 sea miles from Puerto Rico

1600 – San Marino adopts constitution

1604 – Supernova “Kepler’ s nova” 1st sighted

1625 – Admiral George Villiers ‘ fleet sails from
Plymouth to Cadiz

1633 – Massachusetts Bay Colony forms its 1 st
government

1690 – Turkish troops occupy Belgrade

1712 – French hijacker Jacques Cassard seen on
Suriname coast

1740 – Chinese assault on Diestpoort Batavia

1769 – Captain James Cook is the first European to land in New Zealand (Poverty bay)

1775 – Officers decide to bar slaves & free blacks from Continental Army

1806 – British forces lay siege to French port of
Boulogne using Congreve rockets, invented by Sir William Congreve

1813 – Treaty of Ried between Bayern & Austria

1815 – Joachim Murats forces lands at Pizzo Italy

1818 – 2 English boxers are 1st to use padded
gloves

1821 – The government of General
José de San Martín establishes the Peruvian Navy .

1822 – 1 st eruption of Galunggung ( Java) sends boiling sludge into valley

1835 – Charles Darwin reaches James Island,
Galapagos archipelago , on HMS Beagle

1840 – 1 st Hawaiian constitution proclaimed

1856 – The Second Opium War or 2nd Anglo –
Chinese War : begins with the Arrow Incident on the Pearl River .

1860 – Telegraph line between LA & SF opens

1862 – Battle of Perryville, KY- Confederate invasion halted

1862 – Otto von Bismarck becomes chancellor of the German Empire

1879 – War of the Pacific: the Chilean Navy defeats the Peruvian Navy in the Battle of Angamos , Peruvian Admiral Miguel Grau is killed in the encounter .

1912 – Montenegro declares war on Turkey,
beginning 1 st Balkan War

1917 – Trotski named chairman of Petrograd Soviet

1933 – Martinez Barrios forms new Spanish
government

1821 – The government of General José de San Martín establishes the Peruvian Navy .

1932 – The Indian Air Force is established

1962 – Algeria admitted as 109 th member of UN

1963 – Sultan of Zanzibar cedes his mainland
possessions to Kenya

1970 – Soviet author Alexander I Solzhenitsyn wins Nobel Prize for Literature

1973 – Spyris Markezinis forms government in Greece

2012 – Hugo Chávez is re – elected as president of Venezuela for a fourth term

2012 – Mustafa A. G . Abushagur , the first elected Libyan Prime Minister , is voted out of office by the Libyan parliament

2012 – John B . Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka win the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine for their work on reprogramming end stage cells to become pluripotent

DEATHS

705 – Abd al -Malik , kalief of Damascus, dies

976 – Jelena of Zadar , Croatian queen

1286 – John I of Dreux , Duke of Brittany (b . 1217)

1317 – Fushimi , Emperor of Japan (b . 1265)

1945 – Herman T Colenbrander , historian, dies at 73

1869 – Franklin Peirce, 14th president (1853 -1857 ), dies in Concord NH at 64

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