1984: American musician Bruce Springsteen released Born in the U.S.A., which became one of his defining works.


1970:The Kingdom of Tonga achieved independence within the British Commonwealth.

1942:Japan was repulsed by the United States at the Battle of Midway in World War II.

1940:During World War II the evacuation of Dunkirk, France, came to an end, having saved 198,000 British and 140,000 French and Belgian troops.

1920:The Treaty of Trianon was signed by representatives of Hungary on one side and the Allied powers on the other, concluding World War I.

1833:British Field Marshal Garnet Joseph Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley, whose most brilliant campaign involved seizing the Suez Canal and, after a night march, surprising and defeating ʿUrābī Pasha at Al-Tall al-Kabīr (September 13, 1882), was born.

1796:Napoleon Bonaparte commanded the Siege of Mantua, which resulted in the exclusion of Austrians from northern Italy.

1783:Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier launched an unmanned hot-air balloon, the first public demonstration of the discovery that hot air in a large lightweight bag rises.


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