1389 – Ottomans defeat Serbian army in the bloody Battle of Kosovo, opening the way for the Ottoman conquest of Southeastern Europe (see Vidovdan).

1846 – Saxophone is patented by Antoine Joseph Sax

1914 – Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his wife Sophie are assassinated in Sarajevo by young Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip at 10.45 , the casus belli of World War I.

1919 – Treaty of Versailles ending WW I signed in France

1950 – North Korean forces capture Seoul, South Korea in opening phase of the Korean Wa

1964 – Organization for Afo-American Unity formed in NY by Malcolm X

2004 – Estonia, Lithuania and Slovenia join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism

2004 – The 17th NATO Summit starts in Istanbul.

2004 – Sovereign power is handed to the interim government of Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority, ending the U.S.-led rule of that nation.

2005 – A final design for Manhattan’s Freedom Tower is formally unveiled.

2006 – The Republic of Montenegro was admitted as the 192nd Member of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution 60/264.


1703 – John Wesley, Epworth, Lincolnshire, English Christian theologian and co-founder of the Methodist movement

1712 – Jean Jacques Rousseau, France, composer/social contractor (Confession)

1892 – Edward H Carr, England, historian (History of Soviet Russia)

1926 – Mel Brooks, New York City, American actor and director (Blazing Saddles, Spaceballs)

1940 – Muhammad Yunus, Bangladeshi banker, economist and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize

1948 – Kathy Bates, Memphis TN, academy award winning actress (Misery)


1836 – James Madison, 4th US pres (1809-17), dies in Montpelier Va at 85

1889 – Maria Mitchell, 1st US woman astronomer (Vassar), dies at 70

1914 – Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, assassinated in Sarajevo aged 50

1978 – Clifford Dupont, First President of Rhodesia (b. 1905)

1981 – Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti, Iran Islamic Rep Party founder, bombed

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