Nature of Ibadan Traditional Institution Before 1936



Ibadan. The city of rusctic roofs.

     The traditional political system of Ibadan differs from that of other Yoruba towns. Ibadan has no sacred king – a fact which may be explained by the peculiar origin and early growth of the town. Men, usually the Mogaji of their lineages, are appointed by the chiefs to vacant titles of the lowest rank. As each chief dies, those ranked below him rise in theory one place, thus creating a vacancy at the bottom (in practice some leap frogging of place is recorded).  At the top of the ladder is the office of the Bale since 1936 termed Olubadan. Between 1820 and 1850, the structure of government reflected the dominance of the military. Maye took thew title of generalissimo, OLuyedun took the title of Are-Ona-Kakanfo, being the title of his late father, Afonja of Ilorin and Oluyole took the title of Bashorun from Alaafin Atiba in 1839. By 1851, a republican system of Obaship had emerged Oyesile Olugbode became the Bale while Ibikunle became the Balogun, Sunmola Laamo was the Otun Bale while Ogunmola became the Otun Balogun.

       Beside the Balogun that headed the military line, the Bale was the head of the civil line. The younger and unproven men had their own line, which is headed by Seriki, a young warrior of distinction. A fourth line was created and represented women. The women line is civil, headed by Iyalode. The Ibadan traditional council, before the advent of the colonial administration, was the supreme organ of state while in the exercise of power; the bale was the chief executive. Its membership line was made up of high chiefs from Bale line and Balogun and council decisions on most important issues were final. Among the most important issues deliberated upon was diplomacy, war, custom duties, appointment, promotion and discipline of chiefs, military and security.

            Before 1850, when the three major Yoruba groups namely the Oyos, Egbas, and Ifes, who occupied the city in 1820 were still struggling  to evolve an acceptable system of administration which referred to as transition period, the political organization was largely confined to the city itself and its surroundings farmlands. The situation changed dramatically when Ibadan Army invaded and subdued the entire Ekiti country and much of South-Western Oyo to create the “Ibadan Empire”. Ibadan Administrative region up to 1893 therefore, extended over a land area of about one-third of Yorubaland. Its population as early as 1890 was estimated to be over 12, 00013. The establishment of British Administration in 1883 brought to an end the control of which Ibadan exercised over the Ijesha and Ekiti territories of Yorubaland. The Ibadan administrative region was therefore drastically reduced to encompass only Ibadan Province, which was made up of Ibadan Division, Osun Division and Ibarapa Division.    

See also 

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